EGU 2016 POSTER: PROGRAM

LUSI LIBRARY: Ten years of Lusi eruption

Slide19

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slide53

Postur Lusi mud volcano di bagian selatan, memperlihatkan tiga kapal keruk. Pusat semburan Sulung dan Bungsu.

Contributed by Hardi Prasetyo, BPLS

European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 

Vienna | Austria | 17–22 April 2016

Posters SSP3.16/GMPV8.10

SSP3.16/GMPV8.10 

Sepuluh Tahun Lusi – Suatu pelajaran tentang sistem pembubungan (piercement) modern dan purba

Ten years of Lusi eruption – lessons learned about modern and ancient piercement systems (co-organized)

 

Convener: Adriano Mazzini  

Co-Conveners: Sverre Planke , Matteo Lupi 

Session details

Orals

 / Tue, 19 Apr, 13:30–15:00 / Room M2

Attendance Time:

Chairperson:  Mazzini, A., Lupi, M., Planke, S.

 Tuesday, 19 Apr, 17:30–19:00

EGU2016-12110

Slide54

LUSI LAB: suatu  Studi lintas disiplin pada suatu laboratorium alam yang aktif

LUSI LAB: a multidisciplinary project in a natural active laboratory

Adriano Mazzini and Lusi Lab Team

EGU2016-13132

Dynamic pumice Lusi, di Cekungan Jawa Timur

Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

Matteo Lupi, Erik H. Saenger, Florian Fuchs, and Steve Miller

EGU2016-368

Pemantuan berbasis GPS-daratan pada locks semburan Lusi

Ground-based GPS monitoring at the Lusi eruption site and external perturbations.

Alwi Husein, Adriano Mazzini, Soffian Hadi, Bagus Santosa, Muhammad Charis, and Dwinata Irawan

EGU2016-366

Kombinasi survei geofisika dan data concoh inti untuk menyelidika pola dari sistem Patahan Watukosek disekitar lokasi semburan Lusi, Indonesia

Combined geophysical surveys and coring data to investigate the pattern of the Watukosek fault system around the Lusi eruption site, Indonesia.

Alwi Husein, Adriano Mazzini, Matteo Lupi, Guillaume Mauri, Andreas Kemna, Soffian Hadi, and Bagus Santosa

EGU2016-13163

Eksperimen geofisika multikomponen secara berlanjut pada semburan lumpur LUSI: Apa yang data kita pelajari?

Continuous multi-component geophysical experiment on LUSI mud edifice: What can we learn from it?

Guillaume Mauri, Alwi Husein, Karyono Karyono, Soffian Hadi, Adriano Mazzini, Marine Collignon, Maïté Faubert, Stephen A. Miller, and Matteo Lupi

EGU2016-367

Pemanatuan dan Karakterisasi Geyser dan Aktivitas gempa pada lokasi Semburan Lumpur Lusi, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Monitoring and Characterizing the Geysering and Seismic Activity at the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

Karyono Karyono, Anne Obermann, Adriano Mazzini, Matteo Lupi, Ildrem Syafri, Abdurrokhim Abdurrokhim, Masturyono Masturyono, and Soffian Hadi

EGU2016-7525

Suatu jaringan seismik  untuk menyelidiki sedimen-Induk  sistem hidrotermal Lusi

A seismic network to investigate the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system

Mohammad Javad Fallahi, Adriano Mazzini, Matteo Lupi, Anne Obermann, and Karyono Karyono

EGU2016-3495

Rancangan Lusi drone multiguna. Ketika technologi dapat mengakses suatu lingkungan yang sulit.

The design of the multipurpose Lusi drone. When technology can access harsh environments.

Giovanni Romeo, Giuseppe Di Stefano, Adriano Mazzini, and Alessandro Iarocci

EGU2016-3275

Survei Fotogrametri dan mosaik: suatu alatbantu untuk memantau zona aktif. Penerapan pada lokasi semburan Lusi di Indonesia.

Photogrammetry surveys and mosaic: a useful tool to monitor active zones. Applications to the Indonesian Lusi eruption site.

Giovanni Romeo, Giuseppe Di Stefano, Adriano Mazzini, Alessandro Iarocci, and Antonio Caramelli

EGU2016-5919

Pengambailan data inframerah beresolusi tinggi dengan drone pada semburan lumpur LUSI.

High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

Fabio Di Felice, Giovanni Romeo, Giuseppe Di Stefano, and Adriano Mazzini

EGU2016-9270

Survei Geokimia pada semburan lumur Lusi

Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

Alessandra Sciarra, Adriano Mazzini, Giuseppe Etiope, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Alwi Hussein, and Soffian Hadi J.

EGU2016-13330

Analisis Isotop dan Ion  air dari semburan Lusi untuk konstrain pada model numerik

Isotopic and ion analysis of erupting Lusi water for constraints on numerical models

Maïté Faubert, Reza Sohrabi, Guillaume Mauri, Adriano Mazzini, and Stephen Miller

EGU2016-16421

Menelusuri struktur panas di bawah Lusi: ditinjau dari rekaman temperatur pada klastik yang disemburkan

Constraining the thermal structure beneath Lusi: insights from temperature record in erupted clasts 

Benjamin Malvoisin, Adriano Mazzini, and Stephen Miller

EGU2016-9200

Semburan lumpur Lusi dan hubungannya dengan  sistem perminyakan di Jawa Timur

Lusi mud eruption and its connection with petroleum systems of East Java

Nikolay Evdokimov, Adriano Mazzini, and Elena Poludetkina

EGU2016-16583

Mikrobiologi dan geokimia dari sedimen kaya hidrokarbon yang disemburkan dari lokasi panasbumi dalam Lusi, Indonesia.

Microbiology and geochemistry of hydrocarbon-rich sediments erupted from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia 

Martin Krüger, Nontje Straten, Adriano Mazzini, Georg Scheeder, and Martin Blumenberg

EGU2016-17105

Tantangan pemodelan semburan klastik: penerapan pada semburan lumpur Lusi, Indonesia.

Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia. 

Marine Collignon, Daniel Schmid, and Adriano Mazzini

EGU2016-7149

Pemodelan aliran fluida pada semburan lumpur Lusi, Indonesia.

Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia. 

Marine Collignon, Daniel Schmid, and Adriano Mazzini

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-12110-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

LUSI LAB: a multidisciplinary project                                                   in a natural active laboratory

Adriano Mazzini and Lusi Lab Team
CEED – University of Oslo, CEED, Oslo, Norway (adriano.mazzini@geo.uio.no)

The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a strike-slip fault (Watukosek fault system) in the NE of Java, Indonesia. The eruption occurred almost two days after a 6.3 M earthquake striking the island of Java. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of ∼7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the “largest mud eruption site on Earth”.

LUSI LAB (ERC grant n◦ 308126) focuses on five main aspects in order to complete a comprehensive regional investigation of this impressive event: 1) sampling and monitoring the active Lusi eruption site; 2) monitoring and sampling the neighbouring volcanic arc; 3) monitoring the local micro-seismicity and its relationship with regional seismicity; 4) monitoring the fault system originating from the volcanic arc, crossing Lusi and extending to the NE of Java island; 5) numerical modelling of Lusi activity and the strike-slip/magmatic complex system. We completed several field expeditions.

Our studies investigated the mechanisms of reactivation of the Watukosek fault system that crosses Lusi locality and continues to the NE of Java. Results show that after the 27-05-2009 earthquake it was activated the lateral movement of this strike-slip system resulting in these several aligned eruptions sites including Lusi.

Further, our geochemical studies of the erupted fluids reveal a mantle signature and point to a connection with the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex indicating that Lusi is a sedimentary hosted geothermal system.

We have designed, developed and constructed the Lusi drone. This is a remote controlled hexacopter developed and assembled in order to complete multidisciplinary studies in extreme and inaccessible environments. The Lusi drone allowed us to successfully complete video/photo surveys as well as fluids/mud sampling from the crater including spot measurements.

In order to estimate the amount of gas that is being released around the Lusi crater area (∼7 km2), we conducted two surveys including over 350 stations (CO2 and CH4 flux measurements) using a closed-chamber flux-meter system, measured radon emissions, and collected more than 60 gas samples to analyze the composition of the seeps and the crater plume.

We also investigated microbial processes and thriving communities conducting several sampling campaigns to collect samples of fresh mud from the erupting crater using the remote controlled drone. In addition we completed a transect in the mud flood zone to sample older, weathered flows for comparison. The results of the microbial colonies incubation reveal the widespread presence of active microbial colonies, even at high temperatures, opening new questions regarding life in the deep biosphere.

Since more than a year we have operating a network of 31 seismic stations distributed around the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic arc, along the Waukosek fault and around Lusi. The purpose of this long term monitoring is to observe how local seismicity and/or the frequent seismic activity ongoing in the subduction zone in southern Java affects the activity of the magma chamber, the Watukosek fault system and the Lusi activity. In addition we also deployed temporary stations inside the embankment area to observe the activity of the pulsating behavior of Lusi and its geysering bursts. This study is coupled with video observations.

A comprehensive combined electrical resistivity and self-potential (SP) survey was performed in the 7 km2 area inside the Lusi embankment. The goal of the geophysical survey was to map the near-surface occurrence of the Watukosek fault system, and provide useful data for numerical modelling.
The large amount of data collected allows us to test several approaches to model numerically some of the dynamics ongoing in the Lusi conduit and, on a larger basinal scale, to construct a 3D geological model of the region around Lusi.

 

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-13132, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

Matteo Lupi (1), Erik H. Saenger (2), Florian Fuchs (3), and Steve Miller (4)

On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing.

The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately $4 billions to Indonesia.

Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids.

To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi’s structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies.

Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-368-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Ground-based GPS monitoring at the Lusi eruption site and external perturbations.

Alwi Husein (1,2,3), Adriano Mazzini (1), Soffian Hadi (3), Bagus Santosa (2), Muhammad Charis (3), and Dwinata Irawan (3)

The Indonesian Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 and since then has been continuously spewing hot mud over a surface of 7 km2 that is today framed by high containment dams.

The shape of the eruption site constantly evolved during the last 9.5 years. After an initial cone-shaped morphology, the original ground level has been characterised by an overall progressive subsidence, typical at eruption sites, compensated by the continuous eruption of boiling mud breccia.

Numerous external factors appear to influence the evolution of the Lusi morphology and its activity. Of particular interest is the interaction between the frequent seismicity, the activity of the neighboring volcanic arcs, the Watukosek fault system that intersects Lusi, that in turn alter the eruption activity and posture.

In order to study the evolution of the Lusi system, we continuously monitor the area using a GPS ground-based method. The investigation is conducted ombining the data from a base station located ∼5 km to the south of Lusi, coupled with several secondary benchmark stations scatterred just around the crater and the embankment that frames the eruption site. These data are complemented by rover GPS stations connected to the system. About 400-1000 point measurements are collected during each survey depending on the condition of the mud terrain.

The collected data allows monitoring the evolution and the displacements occurring around the eruption site as well as the changes in mud erupted volumes and the related variations in flow rate.

Results reveal that the ongoing subsidence and other significant morphological changes occurring at Lusi site are directly correlated with recorded seismic events as well as regional volcanic activity at various sites.

During such events the normal gradual collapse trend is reversed and are observed lateral and/or vertical elevation increases resulting in several centimeters of dislocation during the analyzed time frame.

This monitoring reveals that even events located more than 300 km away from Lusi have a significant effect at the active eruption site.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-366-2, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Combined geophysical surveys and coring data to investigate the pattern of the Watukosek fault system around the Lusi eruption site, Indonesia.

Alwi Husein (1,2,3), Adriano Mazzini (1), Matteo Lupi (4), Guillaume Mauri (5), Andreas Kemna (6), Soffian Hadi (3), and Bagus Santosa (2)

The Lusi mud eruption is located in the Sidoarjo area, Indonesia and is continuously erupting hot mud since its birth in May 2006.

The Watukosek fault system originates from the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex extending towards the NE of Java. After the 27-06-2006 M 6.3 earthquake this fault system was reactivated and hosted numerous hot mud eruptions in the Sidoarjo area. Until now, no targeted investigations have been conducted to understand the geometry of the faults system crossing the Lusi eruption site.

A comprehensive combined electrical resistivity and self-potential (SP) survey was performed in the 7 km2 area inside the Lusi embankment that had been built to contain the erupted mud and to prevent flooding of the surrounding roads and settlements.

The goal of the geophysical survey is to map the near-surface occurrence of the Watukosek fault system upon which Lusi resides, delineate its spatial pattern, and monitor its development. We completed six lines of resistivity measurements using Wenner configuration and SP measurements using roll-along technique. Three subparallel lines were located to the north and to the south of the main crater. Each line was approximately W-E oriented extending for ∼1.26 km. The surveyed regions consist of mud breccia (containing clayey-silty-sandy mixture with clast up to ∼10 cm in size). The geophysical data have been complemented with a N-S oriented profile consisting of 6 cores (∼30m long) drilled in the dry area inside the Lusi embankment.

The resistivity data were inverted into 2-D resistivity images with a maximum penetration depth of almost 200 m. These images consistently reveal a region of about 300 m in width (between 30-90 m depth) characterized by anomalous resistivities, which are lower than the values observed in the surrounding area. The results of the SP data correspond well with the resistivity profiles in the anomalous parts, which suggests that their origin is related to fluid flow paths in the subsurface. The coring results reveal varying thickness of the dry walkable mud overlying water saturated mud. The retrieved material also helped to constrain the subsidence depth of the original ground level that continuously collapses since the initiation of the eruption.

These results have been used to complement the resistivity profiles and to provide a better model for the Watukosek fault system and the regional subsidence.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-13163-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Continuous multi-component geophysical experiment on LUSI mud edifice: What can we learn from it?

Guillaume Mauri (1), Alwi Husein (2,3,4), Karyono Karyono (2,5,6), Soffian Hadi (4), Adriano Mazzini (2), Marine Collignon (2), Maïté Faubert (1), Stephen A. Miller (1), and Matteo Lupi (7)

The Lusi eruption is located in East Java, Indonesia, and is ongoing since May 29th, 2006. In the framework of joined international projects, several joint geophysical studies focussing on seismic monitoring, spatial investiga- tion over the mud edifice and its surroundings are being conducted. Here we present freshly acquired data from a test site to investigate: (1) potential change in the natural electrical self-potential generation over time (2) potential change in gravity field associated to change in mass or volume, (3) if the geysering activity generates disruption on either the electrical or gravity field.

We selected a location ∼200m to the NE of the active Lusi crater. The experiment site covers an area of 60m x 80m, crossing the boundaries between the soft and the solid walkable mud. The western edge of the study area was less than 100m away from the rim of the crater site.

A self-potential array made of 6 Pb-PbCl2 electrodes was deployed over the site. The electrodes were positioned inside active seeps, on dry unaltered zones and close to the mud stream that flushes the water erupted from the crater site. All the electrodes were connected to a single Pb-PbCl2 electrode reference.

A second array of 7 thermometers was installed positioning 5 of them next to SP electrodes, one to measure atmospheric temperature and another P/T probe to monitor the stream water.

In addition a seismometer coupled with a HD video camera, a thermal camera and a gravimeter recorded on site for several days monitoring visual and seismic activity of the crater.

The collected data allows us to 1) monitor and define the different geysering activities ongoing at the crater, 2) define the delay existing between the recorded seismicity and the visual observations, 3) verify if the crater activity triggers perturbations that are transmitted to e.g. the thousands of satellite seeps distributed in the 7 square kilometers zone inside the embankment; 4) how significant is the delay between the crater activity and the water streamed out.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-367-6, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

 

Monitoring and Characterizing the Geysering and Seismic Activity at the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

Karyono Karyono (1,4,5), Anne Obermann (2), Adriano Mazzini (1), Matteo Lupi (3), Ildrem Syafri (4),

Abdurrokhim Abdurrokhim (4), Masturyono Masturyono (5), and Soffian Hadi (6)

The Lusi eruption began on May 29, 2006 in the northeast of Java Island, Indonesia, and to date is still active. Lusi is a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system characterized by continuous expulsion of liquefied mud and breccias and geysering activity. Lusi is located upon the Watukosek fault system, a left lateral wrench system connecting the volcanic arc and the bakarc basin. This fault system is still periodically reactivated as shown by field data.

In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) we conducted several types of monitoring. Based on camera observations, we characterized the Lusi erupting activity by four main behaviors occurring cyclically: (1) Regular activity, which consists in the constant emission of water and mud breccias (i.e. viscous mud containing clay, silt, sand and clasts) associated with the constant expulsion of gas (mainly aqueous vapor with minor amounts of CO2 and CH4) (2) Geysering phase with intense bubbling, consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful bursting events that do not seem to have a regular pattern. (3) Geysering phase with intense vapor and degassing discharge and a typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m height. (4) Quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (and the observed cycle) with no gas emissions or bursts observed.

To investigate the possible seismic activity beneath Lusi and the mechanisms controlling the Lusi pulsating behaviour, we deployed a network of 5 seismic stations and a HD camera around the Lusi crater. We characterize the observed types of seismic activity as tremor and volcano-tectonic events. Lusi tremor events occur in 5-10 Hz frequency band, while volcano tectonic events are abundant in the high frequencies range from 5 Hz until 25 Hz. We coupled the seismic monitoring with the images collected with the HD camera to study the correlation between the seismic tremor and the different phases of the geysering activity.

Key words: Lusi mud eruption, geysering activity, seismic activity

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-7525-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

A seismic network to investigate the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system

Mohammad Javad Fallahi (1), Adriano Mazzini (1), Matteo Lupi (2), Anne Obermann (3), and Karyono Karyono (4)

(1) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED), University of Oslo, Norway (fallahi@geo.uio.no, adriano.mazzini@geo.uio.no), 

The 29th of May 2006 marked the beginning of the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system. During the last 10 years we witnessed numerous alterations of the Lusi system behavior that coincide with the frequent seismic and volcanic activity occurring in the region. In order to monitor the effect that the seismicity and the activity of the volcanic arc have on Lusi, we deployed a ad hoc seismic network.

This temporary network consist of 10 broadband and 21 short period stations and is currently operating around the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, along the Watukosek fault system and around Lusi, in the East Java basin since January 2015. We exploit this dataset to investigate surface wave and shear wave velocity structure of the upper- crust beneath the Arjuno-Welirang-Lusi complex in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126).

Rayleigh and Love waves travelling between each station-pair are extracted by cross-correlating long time series of ambient noise data recorded at the stations. Group and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained by time-frequency analysis of cross-correlation functions, and are tomographically inverted to provide 2D velocity maps corresponding to different sampling depths. 3D shear wave velocity structure is then acquired by inverting the group velocity maps.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-3495, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

The design of the multipurpose Lusi drone. When technology can access harsh environments.

Giovanni Romeo (1), Giuseppe Di Stefano (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), and Alessandro Iarocci (1)

(1) Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma, Italy (giovanni.romeo@ingv.it), (2) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED) University of Oslo, Oslo; Norway

Extreme and inaccessible environments are a new frontier that unmanned and remotely operated vehicles can today safely access and monitor. The Lusi mud eruption (NE Java Island, Indonesia) represents one of these harsh environments that are totally unreachable with traditional techniques. Here boiling mud is constantly spewed tens of meters in height and tall gas clouds surround the 100 meters wide active crater. The crater is surrounded by a 600 meters circular zone of hot mud that prevents any approach to investigate and sample the eruption site.

In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) we assembled and designed a multipurpose drone to survey the eruption site. The Lusi drone is equipped with numerous airborne devices suitable for use on board of other multicopters.
During the missions three cameras can complete 1) video survey, 2) high resolution photogrammetry of desired and preselected polygons, and 3) thermal photogrammetry surveys with infra-red camera to locate hot fluids seepage areas or faulted zones.

Crater sampling and monitoring operations can be pre-planned with a flight software, and the pilot is required only for take-off and landing. An automatic winch allows the deployment of gas, mud and water samplers and contact thermometers to be operated with no risk for the aircraft. During the winch operations (that can be performed automatically) the aircraft hovers at a safety height until the tasks are completed while being controlled by the winch embedded processor. The drone is also equipped with a GPS connected CO2 and CH4 sensors. Gridded surveys using these devices allowed obtaining 2D maps of the concentration and distribution of various gasses over the area covered by the flight path.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-3275-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Photogrammetry surveys and mosaic: a useful tool to monitor active zones. Applications to the Indonesian Lusi eruption site.

Giovanni Romeo (1), Giuseppe Di Stefano (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), Alessandro Iarocci (1), and Antonio Caramelli (1)

(1) Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma, Italy (giovanni.romeo@ingv.it), (2) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED) University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (adriano.mazzini@geo.uio.no)

Unmanned and remotely operated aircraft showed to be an efficient and cost effective way to explore remote or extreme environments. Comparative photogrammetry studies are an efficient way to study and monitor he evolution of geologically active areas and ongoing events and are able to highlight details that are typically lost during traditional field campaigns.

The Lusi mud eruption in eastern Java (Indonesia) represents one of the most spectacular geological phenomena that is ongoing since May 2006. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) we designed and constructed a multipurpose drone to survey the eruption site. Among the numerous other payloads, the Lusi drone is equipped with Olympus EPM-2 and Go-Pro Hero3 cameras that allow the operator to collect video stills, high quality pictures and to complete photogrammetry surveys. Targeted areas have been selected for detailed studies in the 7 km2 region inside the embankment that was prevent the mud burial of the settlements in the Sidoarjo Regency.

The region is characterized by the presence of the Watukosek fault zone. This strike slip system originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex and extends to the north east of the Java Island intersecting the Lusi crater. Therefore of particular interest are the faulted surveyed areas present around the Lusi crater inside the embankment. Results reveal a surprising accuracy for the collected mosaic. Multiple surveys are able to reveal the changes and the evolution of the fault through time and to indicate more active zones. In particular this type of survey can highlight the weakness zones and is thus useful to prevent potential geohazards in the area. The poster shows the aerial survey results, including a 3d-printed slice of LuSi, obtained combining 2500 16 Mp photographs. A 3d zoomed detail is also shown, evidencing the resolution that this technique can offer.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-5919, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

Fabio Di Felice (1), Giovanni Romeo (1), Giuseppe Di Stefano (1), and Adriano Mazzini (2)

(1) New Technology and Instruments Laboratory, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma, Italy , (2) Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions.

Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater.
In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts.

Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared ab- sorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone.

Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important in- formation about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be to use a multi-spectral thermal camera to perform a complete near remote sensing to detect, not only temperature, but gas, sensitive to particular wavelengths.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-9270-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

Alessandra Sciarra (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), Giuseppe Etiope (1), Salvatore Inguaggiato (3), Alwi Hussein (4), and Soffian Hadi J. (4)

(1) Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy (alessandra.sciarra@ingv.it),

The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (∼ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud.

Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system.
These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41◦C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4.

An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment.

These measurements are complemented with a database of ∼350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C–CH4, δD–CH4 and δ13C–CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the seeping gases.

Statistical analyses over the 7 km2 area allowed us to estimate the full amount of gas currently released. Flux estimates from the crater zone suggest an order of magnitude higher than those measured from the surround- ing region.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-13330, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Isotopic and ion analysis of erupting Lusi water for constraints on numerical models

Maïté Faubert (1), Reza Sohrabi (1), Guillaume Mauri (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), and Stephen Miller (1)

(1) CHYN-Centre for Hydrogeology and Geothermics, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, (2) CEED – Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Normay

The LUSI mud eruption, in the Sidoarjo district, East Java, Indonesia, has been continuously erupting great amounts of material for ten years. From a hydrogeological point of view, the hypothesis that this is a newly born deep hydrothermal system is supported by geochemistry, thermal properties, and its geyser-like behavior. The present work investigates the configuration of this hydrogeological system through hydro-chemical analysis of the erupting fluids, and to establish constraints on numerical model parameters.

We used two different radioactive isotope dating methods (δ14C and δ3H) to constrain travel time from in- flow to outflow, and major ion analyses to determine water-type from LUSI. We also measured δ2H and δ18O to determine the source of the water. Additionally, it has been reported that significant amounts of Li is found in the erupting fluid.

Result of δ14C provides ages in the range of 16ka, and ion analyses show the water is of the Na-Cl type, typical for hydrothermal volcanic fluids. However, typical volcanic fluids have high K, and the low K that we mea- sured in the LUSI erupting waters could result from K-consumption associated with smectite-illite metamorphism (e.g. dehydration) of the Upper Kalibeng formation. The quantity of Li reinforces the volcanic source hypothesis, while the stable isotope results show that the water feeding the erupting system is a combination of formation dehydration, magmatic origin, and mixed with some meteoric water.

We propose that the erupting water originates from deep strata, likely below the carbonate formation at a depth of > 4 km deep. The carbonate formation provides the necessary permeability to feed the substantial outflow observed at the surface. The Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, situated at ∼20 km from LUSI, offers the necessary hydraulic gradient to drive the eruption. These parameters provide constraints on numerical models that we are developing to understand LUSI’s deep hydrodynamic, hydrothermal, system.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-16421, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Constraining the thermal structure beneath Lusi: insights from temperature record in erupted clasts

Benjamin Malvoisin (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), and Stephen Miller (1)

(1) UNINE Neuchâtel, CHYN, Neuchatel, Switzerland (benjamin.malvoisin@gmail.com), (2) The Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Sem Saelandsvei 24, Blindern 0316 – Oslo, Norway.

Sedimentary units beneath Lusi from surface to depth are the Pucangan formation, the Upper Kalibeng formation where shales and then volcanoclastic clasts are found, the Kujung-Propuh-Tuban formation composed of carbon- ates and the Ngimbang formation composed of shales.

Water and gas geochemistry as well as surface deformation indicate that Lusi is a hydrothermal system rooted at >4 km depth. However, the thermal structure beneath Lusi is still poorly constrained whereas it has first-order impacts on the physical and chemical processes observed during the eruption.

In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) and of a project of the Swiss National Science Foundation (n◦160050) we studied erupted clasts collected at the crater site to determine their source and temperature record.

Three types of clasts were studied based on morphological and mineralogical basis. The first type is limestones mainly composed of Ca- and Fe-bearing carbonates. The clasts of the second type are light grey shales (LGS) containing carbonaceous matter, illite/smectite mixture, plagioclase and quartz. The third type is also a shale with a black colour containing hydrocarbons (black shales, BS) and with the additional presence of Na-rich plagioclase, biotite and chlorite.

The presence of these latter minerals indicates hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperature. Better constraints on temperature were obtained by using both Raman spectroscopic carbona- ceous material thermometry (RSCM) and chlorite geothermometry. Temperatures below 200◦C were determined for the LGS with RSCM. BS recorded two temperatures. The first one, around 170◦C, is rather consistent with an extrapolation of the geothermal gradient measured before the eruption up to 4,000 m depth. Combined with min- eralogical observations, this suggests that BS originate from the Ngimbang formation. The second recorded higher temperature around 250◦C indicates heating, probably through interaction with high temperature hydrothermal fluids.

Calculations performed for such a heating indicate that associated clay dehydration is sufficient to provide the water released during the eruption and that heating-induced overpressure could favor fluid ascent.

These results confirm the hydrothermal scenario in which Lusi eruption is fed by high temperature fluid circulation from the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-7149-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.

Marine Collignon (1), Daniel Schmid (2), and Adriano Mazzini (1)

(1) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Norway (marine.collignon@geo.uio.no), (2) Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo, Norway

The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ∼ 30 000 people.

Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the me- chanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s).

In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant no308126) we use both ana- lytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems.

Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-9200-4, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Lusi mud eruption and its connection with petroleum systems of East Java

Nikolay Evdokimov (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), and Elena Poludetkina (1)

(1) Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (nik.evdokimov@mail.ru), (2) University Oslo, Oslo, Norway (adriano.mazzini@geo.uio.no)

The Lusi mud eruption took place in NE Java, Indonesia, the 29th of May, 2006 and it is still erupting after nearly 10 years of activity. North-Eastern Java is part of a back-arc basin with high petroleum potential with mature source rock and an active oil system.

Several studies have been conducted to understand the origin of the gas and water erupted at the Lusi crater, however very little investigations have been conducted on the oil fraction and on the clasts erupted at the crater site. In particular, a detailed investigation of the erupted solid fraction could provide distinct evidence about the depth of the conduit and useful constrains for modelling the forces necessary to fracture and eject clasts from defined depths.

A large collection of clasts and fluids sampled from the Lusi crater site has been investigated completing lithological descriptions and conducting geochemical analyses. Our results show the presence of clasts that can be linked with the various formations pierced by the Lusi feeder conduit. One of the main goals was to distinguish the presence and the input of the deep regional Ngimbang Formation. The organic-rich Ngimbang Formation is the regional Eocene source rock in NE Java estimated to be buried at a depth of >4km. This is a black shale kerogen type II with TOC up to 10%. We identified significant amounts of organic rich black shale samples, several of which are coaly, and with TOC content up to 10% and very high hydrocarbon potential. Mineralogical analyses show also the presence of high temperature minerals. Ongoing analyses are comparing the composition of the oil seeping at Lusi with that extracted from the hydrocarbon impregnated black shale clast.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-16583, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Microbiology and geochemistry of hydrocarbon-rich sediments erupted from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

Martin Krüger (1), Nontje Straten (1), Adriano Mazzini (2), Georg Scheeder (1), and Martin Blumenberg (1)

(1) Federal institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany (martin.blumenberg@bgr.de), (2) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED) University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island.

Since then it has been producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface.

While the source of the methane at Lusi is clear (Mazzini et al., 2012), the origin of the seeping oil, either form the deep mature Eocene Ngimbang (type II kerogen) or from the less mature Pleistocene Upper Kalibeng Fm. (type III kerogen), is still discussed. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n◦ 308126) we analysed an oil film and found that carbon preference indices among n-alkanes, sterane and hopane isomers (C29-steranes: 20S/(20S+20R) and α,β-C32 Hopanes (S/(S+R), respectively) are indicative of a low thermal maturity of the oil source rock (∼0.5 to 0.6 % vitrinite reflectance equivalents = early oil window maturity). Furthermore, sterane distributions, the pristane to phytane ratio and a relatively high oleanane index, which is an indication of an angiosperm input, demonstrate a strong terrestrial component in the organic matter. Together, hydrocarbons suggest that the source of the oil film is predominantly terrestrial organic matter. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type III organic matter source and are therefore suggestive of a mostly Pleistocene Upper Kalibeng Fm. origin.

We also conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater, using a remotely controlled drone as well as older, weathered samples for comparison. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade hydrocarbons (oils, alkanes, BTEX tested). The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments.

Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms (deep biosphere). First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings.

This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-17105, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

Marine Collignon (1), Daniel Schmid (2), and Adriano Mazzini (1)

(1) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Norway (marine.collignon@geo.uio.no), (2) Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo, Norway

Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems.

However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved.

As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems.

Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models. Previous attempts to model e.g. the longevity of the Lusi eruption were not particularly successful. A possibility is because the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal system is reactivated by frequent seismicity and by the connection with the neighboring volcanic complex feeding it.

Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 18, EGU2016-7149-1, 2016
EGU General Assembly 2016
© Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption,                             East java, Indonesia.

Marine Collignon (1), Daniel Schmid (2), and Adriano Mazzini (1)

(1) Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Norway (marine.collignon@geo.uio.no), (2) Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo, Norway

The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ∼ 30 000 people.

Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the me- chanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s).

In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant no308126) we use both ana- lytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. T

he 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems.

Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s